What do all things have in common?

Posts tagged “Philosophy of Language

Getting Hypertension About Hyperreals

HyperReals(Links below)

This system is quite interesting if we allow ourselves to talk about the qualities of infinite sets as if we can know their character completely. The problem is, any discussion of an infinite set includes their definition which MAY NOT be the same as any characterisation which they may actually have.

Also, and more importantly, interiority as well as exteriority are accessible without the use of this system. These ‘Hyperreals’ are an ontological approach to epistemology via characteristics/properties we cannot really know. There can be no both true and verifiable validity claim in this system.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJWe1BunlXI (Part1)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBmJWEQTl1w (Part2)


Knowledge Representation – Fractal Torus 1

Fractal Torus 1 by Ryan Cameron on YouTube


“How much knowledge does the understanding in words contain?”

hermandadblanca_universo-mente-fractal-geometria-sagrada

Words are symbolic indications and/or conveyors of meaning and are not that meaning in themselves.

Meaning is found, stored, and manipulated in our minds. This is why different languages are capable, in varying degrees of usefulness, to convey meaning which is very similar to that found via the symbols of any other.

déjà vu 01

It It is also the reason why there are words indicating meaning that are not found in other languages; or, if found in a different language, the other language requires more of its own structure, dynamics, and resonance to convey the same meaning.

dèja vu 02

For example: the words ‘déjà vu’ in French are found in German ‘schon gesehen’ and in English ‘already seen’, but these phrases do not convey the full meaning found in the French version. To counter this deficit, their meaning in other languages must be ‘constructed’ out of or ‘fortified’ by the careful use of longer strings of symbols. This additional construction and/or fortification may even fail at times. This is often where the word phrase from a different language is simply added to the language in which the concept is missing.

This same situation is found in the literature of many languages. The words used to convey meaning are condensed and may contain more meaning than is usually the case. In this regard, even the person reading/hearing the words may not possess the competence necessary to catch this condensed meaning in its fullness.

Mathematical expressions, albeit more precise, are also indications of meaning. They are more robust in their formulation, but at ever-increasing depth or scope, even they may fail to reliably or conveniently convey meaning.

dèja vu 03

Our understanding of what words mean is not always accurate, but where our mutual understanding of the meaning of words overlaps, and the degree to which they overlap, is where their meaning can be shared.

Our own personal understanding of words is measured by our ability to apply their meaning in our lives.

There is also a false meme, which I would like to clarify.

“Knowledge is Power!”

It is wrongly said that ‘Knowledge is power’. The truth is another: Knowledge is the measure of usefulness of what we understand and is the only true expression of its ‘power’.

The value of Knowledge is found in its usefulness and not in its possession.

My Quora Answer


Limits of Category Theory and Semiotics

Category Theory 01

They are wonderful tools to explain much of our world, but lack ‘The Right Stuff’ to handle the metaphysical underpinnings of anything near a Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language , or a Philosophy of Learning.

This is, because Category Theory specialises on roughly half of the Noosphere. It does a wonderful job on exteriority, but cannot sufficiently describe nor comprehensively access interiority.

Interiority Exteriority

Therefore, as is the case with Semiotics, has limited metaphysical value with respect to philosophy in general.

Semiotics 2

Semiotics

For example: philosophies of mind, language, or learning are not possible using only category theoretical tools and/or semiotics.

Here is an example of one attempt which fails in this regard: http://nickrossiter.org.uk/proce…

(and here: VisualizationFoundationsIEEE)

Here are two problems (of many) in the paper:

4.4.2 Knowledge is the Terminal Object of Visualisation states:

“The ultimate purpose of the visualisation process is to gain Knowledge of the original System. When this succeeds (when the diagram commutes) then the result is a ‘truth’ relationship between the Knowledge and the System. When this process breaks down and we fail to deduce correct conclusions then the diagram does not commute.”

I want to also comment on Figure 3 (which also exposes missing or false premises in the paper), but I will wait until I have discussed the assertions in the quote above which the authors of this paper reference, accept, and wish to justify/confirm.

1) The purpose of a representation is NOT to gain knowledge; rather, to express knowledge. Also, truth has nothing to do with knowledge except when that value is imposed upon it for some purpose. Truth value is a value that knowledge may or not ‘attend’ (participate in).

1a) The ‘truth value’ of the System (‘system’ is a false paradigm [later, perhaps] and a term that I also vehemently disagree with) does not always enter into the ‘dialogue’ between any knowledge that is represented and the observer interpreting that knowledge.

2) The interpretation of a representation is not to “deduce correct conclusions”; rather, to understand the meaning (semantics and epistemology) of what is represented. ‘Correct’ understanding is not exclusive to understanding nor is it necessary or sufficient for understanding a representation, because that understanding finds expression in the observer.

2a) ‘Correct’, as used in this paragraph, is coming from the outside (via the choice of which data [see Fig. 3] is represented to the observer) and may have no correspondence (hence may never ever commute) whatever to what that term means for the observer.

The authors are only talking about ontologies. That is a contrived and provincial look at the subject they are supposing to examine.

There may (and usually are) artefacts inherent in any collection and collation of data. The observer is forced to make ‘right’ (‘correct’) conclusions from that data which those who collected it have ‘seeded’ (tainted) with their own volition.

‘System’ (systematising) anything is Reductionism. This disqualifies the procedure at its outset.

They are proving essentially that manipulation leads to a ‘correct’ (their chosen version) representation of a ‘truth’ value.

I could tie my shoelaces into some kind of knot and think it were a ‘correct’ way to do so if the arrows indicate this. This is why paying too much attention to a navigation system can have one finding themselves at the bottom of a river!

The paper contains assumptions that are overlooked and terms that are never adequately defined! How can you name variables without defining their meaning? They then serve no purpose and must be removed from domain of discourse.

Categorical structures are highly portable, but they can describe/express only part of what is there. There are structure, dynamics, and resonance that ontology and functionalism completely turns a blind eye to.

The qualities of Truth, Goodness, Beauty, Clarity,… (even Falsehood, Badness, Ugliness, Obscurity,…) can be defined and identified within a knowledge representation if the representation is not restricted to ontology alone.

In order to express these qualities in semiotics and category theory, they must first be ontologised funtionally (reduced). Trying to grasp them with tools restricted to semiotics and category theory is like grasping into thin air.

That is actually the point I’m trying to make. Category Theory, and even Semiotics, each have their utility, but they are no match for the challenge of a complete representation of knowledge.


Universal Constants, Variations, and Identities #19 (Inverse Awareness)

Inverse Square
Universal Constants, Variations, and Identities
#19 The Inverse Awareness Relation

The Inverse Awareness Relation establishes a fundamental relationship in our universe:

Micro Awareness = \dfrac{1}{scope}

and

Macro Awareness = \dfrac{1}{depth}
or

\dfrac {Micro Awareness}{Macro Awareness} = \dfrac{depth}{scope}

Which essentially state:

The closer awareness is in some way to an entity, the more depth and the less scope it discerns.

The farther awareness is in some way to an entity, the more scope and the less depth it discerns.

(Be careful, this idea of closeness is not the same as distance.)


Is Real World Knowledge More Valuable Than Fictional Knowledge?

hermandadblanca_universo-mente-fractal-geometria-sagrada

No.

Here an excerpt from a short summary of a paper I am writing that provides some context to answer this question:

What Knowledge is not:

Knowledge is not very well understood so I’ll briefly point out some of the reasons why we’ve been unable to precisely define what knowledge is thus far. Humanity has made numerous attempts at defining knowledge. Plato taught that justified truth and belief are required for something to be considered knowledge.

Throughout the history of the theory of knowledge (epistemology), others have done their best to add to Plato’s work or create new or more comprehensive definitions in their attempts to ‘contain’ the meaning of meaning (knowledge). All of these efforts have failed for one reason or another.

Using truth value and ‘justification’ as a basis for knowledge or introducing broader definitions or finer classifications can only fail.

I will now provide a small set of examples of why this is so.

Truth value is only a value that knowledge may attend.

Knowledge can be true or false, justified or unjustified, because

knowledge is the meaning of meaning

What about false or fictitious knowledge? [Here’s the reason why I say no.]

Their perfectly valid structure and dynamics are ignored by classifying them as something else than what they are. Differences in culture or language even make no difference, because the objects being referred to have meaning that transcends language barriers.

Another problem is that knowledge is often thought to be primarily semantics or even ontology based. Both of these cannot be true for many reasons. In the first case (semantics):

There already exists knowledge structure and dynamics for objects we cannot or will not yet know.

The same is true for objects to which meaning has not yet been assigned, such as ideas, connections and perspectives that we’re not yet aware of or have forgotten. Their meaning is never clear until we’ve become aware of or remember them.

In the second case (ontology): collations that are fed ontological framing are necessarily bound to memory, initial conditions of some kind and/or association in terms of space, time, order, context, relation,… We build whole catalogues, dictionaries and theories about them: Triads, diads, quints, ontology charts, neural networks, semiotics and even the current research in linguistics are examples.

Even if an ontology or set of them attempts to represent intrinsic meaning, it can only do so in a descriptive ‘extrinsic’ way. An ontology, no matter how sophisticated, is incapable of generating the purpose of even its own inception, not to mention the purpose of the objects to which it corresponds.

The knowledge is not coming from the data itself, it is always coming from the observer of the data, even if that observer is an algorithm.

Therefore ontology-based semantic analysis can only produce the artefacts of knowledge, such as search results, association to other objects, ‘knowledge graphs’ like Cayley,…

Real knowledge precedes, transcends and includes our conceptions, cognitive processes, perception, communication, reasoning and is more than simply related to our capacity of acknowledgement.

In fact knowledge cannot even be completely systematised; it can only be interacted with using ever increasing precision.

[For those interested, my summary is found at: A Precise Definition of Knowledge – Knowledge Representation as a Means to Define the Meaning of Meaning Precisely: http://bit.ly/2pA8Y8Y


Does Knowledge Become More Accurate Over Time?

Change lies deeper in the knowledge substrate than time.

Knowledge is not necessarily coupled with time, but it can be influenced by it. It can be influenced by change of any kind: not only time.

Knowledge may exist in a moment and vanish. The incipient perspective(s) it contains may change. Or the perspective(s) that it comprises may resist change.

Also, knowledge changes with reality and vice versa.

Time requires events to influence this relationship between knowledge and reality.

Knowledge cannot be relied upon to be a more accurate expression of reality, whether time is involved or not, because the relationship between knowledge and reality is not necessarily dependent upon time, nor is there necessarily a coupling of the relationship between knowledge and reality. The relationships of ‘more’ and ‘accurate’ are also not necessarily coupled with time.

Example: Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth long before Copernicus published. The ‘common knowledge’ of the time (Copernicus knew about Eratosthenes, but the culture did not) was that the Earth was flat.


Is Mathematics Or Philosophy More Fundamental?

fly-by

Is Mathematics Or Philosophy More Fundamental?

Answer: Philosophy is more fundamental than mathematics.

This is changing, but mathematics is incapable at this time of comprehensively describing epistemology, whereas, philosophy can.

Hence; mathematics is restrained to pure ontology. It does not reach far enough into the universe to distinguish anything other than ontologies. This will change soon. I am working on exactly this problem. See http://mathematica-universalis.com for more information on my work. (I’m not selling anything on this site.)

Also, mathematics cannot be done without expressing some kind of philosophy to underlie any axioms which it needs to function.

PROOF:

Implication is a ‘given’ in mathematics. It assumes a relation which we call implication. Mathematics certainly ‘consumes’ them as a means to create inferences, but the inference form, the antecedent, and the consequent are implicit axioms based upon an underlying metaphysics.

Ergo: philosophy is more general and universal than mathematics.

Often epistemology is considered separate from metaphysics, but that is incorrect, because you cannot answer questions as to ‘How do we know?” without an underlying metaphysical framework within which such a question and answer can be considered.


HUD Fly-by Test

vlcsnap-2016-08-21-22h18m14s161

Link to video.

Don’t take this as an actual knowledge representation; rather, simply a simulation of one. I’m working out the colour, transparent/translucent, camera movements, and other technical issues.
In any case you may find it interesting.
The real representations are coming soon.


Universal Constants, Variations and Identities

 Constants and Variances 1  Constants and Variances 2
 Constants and Variances 5 - We are the ones we have been waiting for!

Universal Constants, Variations and Identities
#12 The ends are determined by their means. (Integrity of purpose)

(Dispelling the lie of: “The ends justify their means.” The truth is that ends are inextricably tied to the means used to achieve them. If we employ destructive means, then only destructive ends can result. Intention means nothing with regard to means… those who believe that learn: “The road to Hell is paved with good intentions.”

See http://mathesis-universalis.com for more information.


Universal Constants, Variations and Identities

Constants and Variances 1Constants and Variances 2

Universal Constants and Variances
#11 Observation is communication between its participants (observer and observed). (Reference)

See http://mathesis-universalis.com for more information.


Universal Constants, Variations and Identities

Constants and Variances 1Constants and Variances 2

Universal Constants and Variances
#10 All holons have at least four fundamental capacities. (Potential)
Horizontal:
1) Agency (Maintaining wholeness/identity) Pull to wholeness
2) Communion (Maintaining partness/relationship) Pull to partness
Vertical:
3) Transcendence (Becoming more wholeness) Pull upwards
4) Dissolution (Breaking down into constituent parts) Pull downwards
(see #6 for definition of holon)

See http://mathesis-universalis.com for more information.


Universal Constants, Variations and… Identities

Constants and Variances 1The basic geometries of the fundamental building blocks of nature, within one unified structureMinding

Universal Constants, Variations and… Identities
7) pi is the identity of periodicity
8) e is the identity of change
9) phi the identity of proportion


Strictly Speaking Can’t! Natural Language Won’t?

language

Physics is only complex, because it’s in someone’s interest to have it that way.  The way to understanding, even if you don’t understand science, was paved with words. Even if those words led only to a symbolic form of understanding.

I’m a mathematician and can tell you that common ordinary language is quite capable of explaining physics. Mathematics is simply more precise than common language. It pays the price for that precision by being subservient to the causal and compositional relations. These are limitations that metaphysics and philosophy do not have.

Words in language have a structure that mathematics alone will never see as it looks for their structure and dynamics in the wrong places and in the wrong ways. Pure mathematics lacks an underlying expression of inherent purpose in its ‘tool set’.

With natural language we are even able to cross the ‘event horizon’ into interiority (where unity makes its journey through the non-dual into the causal realm). It is a place where mathematics may also ‘visit’ and investigate, but only with some metaphysical foundation to navigate with. The ‘landscape’ is very different there… where even time and space ‘behave’ (manifest) differently. Yet common language can take us there! Why? It’s made of the ‘right stuff’!

The monological gaze with its incipient ontological foundation, as found in pure mathematics, is too myopic. That’s why languages such as category theory, although subtle and general in nature, even lose their way. They can tell us how we got there, but none can tell us why we wanted to get there in the first place!

It’s easy to expose modern corporate science’s (mainstream) limitations with this limited tool set – you need simply ask questions like: “What in my methodology inherently expresses why am I looking in here?” (what purpose) or “What assumptions am I making that I’m not even aware of?” or “Why does it choose to do that? and you’re already there where ontology falls flat on its face.

Even questions like these are met with disdain, intolerance and ridicule (the shadow knows it can’t see and wills to banish what it cannot)! And that’s where science begins to resemble religion (psyence).

Those are also some of the reasons why philosophers and philosophy have almost disappeared from the mainstream. I’ll give you a few philosophical hints to pique your interest.

Why do they call it Chaos Theory and not Cosmos Theory?
Why coincidence and not synchronicity?
Why entropy and not centropy?

Why particle and not field?
(many more examples…)


Wonderful Graphics To Save a Disastrous Script

Lucy VFXThe ‘Science’ behind the movie ‘Lucy’ cannot hold a candle to the graphics that ‘sell’ that script!


A Precise Definition of Knowledge – Knowledge Representation as a Means to Define the Meaning of Meaning Precisely

IntroVideo

A Precise Definition of Knowledge
Knowledge Representation as a Means to Define the Meaning of Meaning Precisely
Copyright © Carey G. Butler
August 24, 2014

What is this video about?
In this introductory video I would like to explain what knowledge representation is, how to build and apply them. There are basically three phases involved in the process of building a knowledge representation. Acquisition of data (which includes staging), collation and the representation itself. The collation and the representation phases of the process are mentioned here, but I will explain them further in future videos.

You are now watching a simulation of the acquisition phase as it collects and stores preliminary structure from the data it encounters in terms of the vocabulary contained within that data. Acquisition is a necessary prerequisite for the collation phase following it, because the information it creates from the data are used by the collation algorithms which then transform that information into knowledge.

The statistics you are seeing tabulated are only a small subset of those collected in a typical acquisition phase. Each of these counters are being updated in correspondence to the recognition coming from underlying parsers running in the background. Depending upon the computer resources involved in the
acquisition, these parsers may even even run concurrently as is shown in this simulation.

The objects you see moving around in the video are of two different kinds: knowledge fields or knowledge molecules. Those nearest to you are the field representations of the actual data being collected called knowledge fields. They could represent an individual symbol, punctuation, morpheme, lexeme, word, emotion, perspective, or some other unit of information in the data. Each of them contain their own signature – even if their value, state or other intrinsic properties are unknown or indeterminate during the acquisition.

Those farther away from the view are clusters of fields which have already coalesced into groups according to shared dynamically adaptive factors such as similarity, relation, ordinality, cardinality,…
These ‘molecules’ also contain their own set of signatures and may be composed of a mixture of fields, meta-fields and hyper-fields that are unique to all others.The collation phase has the job of assigning these molecules to their preliminary holarchical domains which are then made visible in the resulting knowledge representation. Uniqueness is preserved even if they contain common elements with others in the domain they occupy. Clusters of knowledge molecules and/or fields grouped together are known as ‘knowledge domains’, ‘structural domains’,’dynamical domains’ or ‘resonance domains’, depending upon which of their aspects is being emphasized.

We now need a short introduction to what knowledge representation is in order to explain why you’re seeing these objects here.

What is Knowledge Representation?
Knowledge representation provides all of the ways and means necessary to reliably and consistently conceptualize our world. It helps us navigate landscapes of meaning without losing our way; however, navigational bearing isn’t the only advantage. Knowledge representation aids our recognition of what changes when we change our world or something about ourselves. It does so, because even our own perspective is included in the representation. It can even reveal to us when elements are missing or hidden from our view!

It’s important to remember that knowledge representation is not an end, rather a means or process that makes explicit to us everything we already do with what we come to be aware of. A knowledge representation must be capable of representing knowledge such that it, like a book or other artifact, brings awareness of that knowledge to us. When we do it right, it actually perpetuates our understanding by providing a means for us to recognize, interpret (understand) and utilize the how and what we know as it relates to itself and to us. In fact – knowledge representation even makes it possible to define knowledge precisely!

What Knowledge is not!
Knowledge is not very well understood so I’ll briefly point out some of the reasons why we’ve been unable to precisely define what knowledge is thus far. Humanity has made numerous attempts at defining knowledge. Plato taught that justified truth and belief are required for something to be considered knowledge. Throughout the history of the theory of knowledge (epistemology), others have done their best to add to Plato’s work or create new or more comprehensive definitions in their attempts to ‘contain’ the meaning of meaning (knowledge). All of these efforts have failed for one reason or another. Using truth value and justification as a basis for knowledge or introducing broader definitions or finer classifications can only fail. I will now provide a small set of examples of why this is so.

Truth value is only a value that knowledge may attend. Knowledge can be true or false, justified or unjustified, because knowledge is the meaning of meaning. What about false or fictitious knowledge? Their perfectly valid structure and dynamics are ignored by classifying them as something else than what they are. Differences in culture or language make even make no difference, because the objects being referred to have meaning that transcends language barriers.

Another problem is that knowledge is often thought to be primarily semantics or even ontology based! Both of these cannot be true for many reasons. In the first case (semantics): There already exists knowledge structure and dynamics for objects we cannot or will not yet know. The same is true for objects to which meaning has not yet been assigned,such as ideas, connections and perspectives that we’re not yet aware of or have forgotten. Their meaning is never clear until we’ve become aware of or remember them.

In the second case (ontology): collations that are fed ontological framing are necessarily bound to memory, initial conditions of some kind and/or association in terms of space, time, order, context, relation,… We build whole catalogs, dictionaries and theories about them! Triads, diads, quints, ontology charts, neural networks, semiotics and even the current research in linguistics are examples. Even if an ontology or set of them attempts to represent intrinsic meaning, it can only do so in a descriptive (extrinsic) way.

An ontology, no matter how sophisticated, is incapable of generating the purpose of even its own inception, not to mention the purpose of objects to which it corresponds! The knowledge is not coming from the data itself, it’s always coming from the observer of the data – even if that observer is an algorithm!

Therefore ontology-based semantic analysis can only produce the artifacts of knowledge, such as search results, association to other objects, ‘knowledge graphs’ like Cayley,.. Real knowledge precedes, transcends and includes our conceptions, cognitive processes, perception, communication, reasoning and is more than simply related to our capacity of acknowledgment. In fact knowledge cannot even be completely systematized, it can only be interacted with using ever increasing precision!

  • What is knowledge then?
    Knowledge is what awareness does.
    • Awareness of some kind and at some level is the only prerequisite for knowledge and is the substrate upon which knowledge is generated.
    • Awareness coalesces, interacts with and perpetuates itself in all of its form and function.
    • Awareness which resonates (shares dynamics) at, near, or in some kind of harmony (even disharmony) with another tends to associate (disassociate) with that other in some way.
    • These requisites of awareness hold true even for objects that are infinite or indeterminate.
    • This is why knowledge, the meaning of meaning, can be precisely defined and even provides its own means for doing so.
    Knowledge is, pure and simply: the resonance, structure and dynamics of awareness as it creates and discovers for and of itself.
    • Awareness precedes meaning and provides the only fundamentally necessary and sufficient basis for meaning of meaning expressing itself as knowledge.
    Knowledge is the dialog between participants in awarenesseven if that dialog appears to be only one-way, incoherent or incomplete.
    • Even language, mathematics, philosophy, symbolism, analogy, metaphor and sign systems can all be resolved to this common denominator found at the foundation of each and every one of them.

More information about the objects seen:
The objects on the surface of the pyramid correspond to basic structures denoting some of the basic paradigms that are being used to mine data into information and then collate that information into knowledge. You may notice that their basic structures do not change, only their content does. These paradigms are comprised of contra-positional fields that harmonize with each other so closely that they build complete harmonic structures. Their function is similar to what proteins and enzymes do in our cells.

#‎Knowledge‬ ‪#‎Wisdom‬ ‪#‎Understanding‬ ‪#‎Learning‬ ‪#‎Insight‬ ‪#‎Semantics‬ ‪#‎Ontology‬ ‪#‎Epistemology‬ ‪#‎Philosophy‬ ‪#‎PhilosophyOfLanguage‬ ‪#‎PhilosophyOfMind‬ ‪#‎Cognition‬ ‪#‎OrganicIntelligence‬ ‪#‎ArtificialIntelligence‬ ‪#‎OI‬ ‪#‎AI‬
‪#‎Awareness‬